Alcohol, Fermentation, Wine, New Wine, Grape Juice,
Fermentation is a sign of death, and death is the result of sin. Alcohol is formed by a process of fermentation; hence, it is a direct child of death and sin.
Prov. 20:1. The wine here referred to is fermented; because it is a “mocker” and “deceiver” its character is evil.
Prov. 23:20, 21. This is also fermented wine; for it is evil and is classed with the riotous” and the “drunkards.”
Gen. 9:21. Fermented wine causes one to lose all sense of modesty.
Isa. 5:11. The evil nature of the wine here referred to is revealed in its inflaming the passions.
Isa. 28:7. Fermented wine causes the one who drinks it to err in vision and stumble in judgment. Prov. 31:4, 5. It will cause one to forget the law and pervert judgment. Prov. 23:21. The use of it brings poverty.
Prov. 23:29, 30. It brings sorrow and contention.
Eph. 5:18. The use of fermented wine forbidden.
Prov. 23:31. We are forbidden to even look upon this kind of wine.
1 Cor. 6:10. No one addicted to the use of intoxicating wine can enter heaven.
The unfermented wine, or the pure juice of the grape, was used as a beverage from earliest time. Gen. 40:11. The king of Egypt drank the sweet juice of grapes.
Deut. 32:14. The pure blood of the grape was regarded as a choice drink. Judges 9:13. It cheers God and man. Ps. 104:15. Gladdens the heart.
1 Tim. 5:23. It has medicinal qualities.
Mark 2:22. If put in old bottles it ferments, thus becoming unfit for use. Ex. 12:15. Leaven causes fermentation; at the time of the Passover, all leaven or fermented things were taken away from the homes. Matt. 26:17, 26, 28. The Lord’s supper was instituted at the Passover supper, and the wine used was unfermented, because nothing fermented was allowed in their houses. The use of fermented wine excludes the drinker from heaven (1 Cor. 6:10); but of the unfermented, it is not only stated that those who use it may enter heaven, but that the Saviour and the redeemed will drink of it in the kingdom of God. Matt. 26:29.
From Bacchiochi (http://www.biblicalperspectives.com/endtimeissues/eti_81.html) :
One may press out a cluster of grapes and pronounce the Kiddush over the juice, since the juice of the grape is considered wine [yayin] in connection with the laws of the Nazirite. (Cited by Louis Ginzberg, "A Response to the Question Whether Unfermented Wine May Be Used in Jewish Ceremonies," American Jewish Year Book 1923, p. 409.)
Fresh wine before fermenting was called 'yayin mi-gat' (wine of the vat; Sanh 70a). (
(The Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906 ed., s. v. "Wine," vol. 12, p. 533.)
Yayin=grape juice in these texts: Jer 40:10, 12; Neh 13:15; Lam 2:12; Gen 49:11; Songs 1:2, 4; 4:10
The typical word for wine is oinos οἶνος. In ancient times, it had dual meanings. Here is an example from Aristotle.
“though called wine [oinos], it has not the effect of wine, for it does not taste like wine and does not intoxicate like ordinary wine.” - Aristotle, Metereologica 388. b. 9-13
“There is more than one kind of liquid called wine [oinos] and different kinds behave differently. For new wine contains more earth than old, and so thickens most under the influence of heat, but solidifies less under the influence of cold.” Metereologica 388. a. 34
Did Jesus turn water to wine?
It is stated that Jesus made water into fermented wine. Fermented wine is necessitated say some, because the wedding took place six months after the Jewish grape harvest. The date is derived from John 2:13. (Bacchiochi 29.4). However there are several good reasons to believe that Jesus made grape juice.
-The art of juice making was known at the time of Jesus ("That must may remain always sweet as though it were fresh, do as follows. Before the grape-skins are put under the press, take from the vat some of the freshest possible must and put it in a new wine-jar [amphoram novam], then daub it over and cover it carefully with pitch, that thus no water may be able to get in."--Columella, On Agriculture 12, 29.).
-Jesus would be held morally responsible for the wedding guests alcohol consumption
-Both the Talmud (Sotah 48a; also Mishna Sotah 9, 11.) and Modern Jewish
rabbis(Cited in William Patton, Bible Wines. Laws of Fermentation condemn/forbid
the use of wine at weddings (Oklahoma City,n. d., p. 83. Emphasis supplied.).
Proverbs 20:21, 23:31
-"Well drunk" is translated "drink freely" in English Standard Version, Revised
Standard Version, American Standard Version, New American Standard Bible,
Younng's Literal Translation.
-The wine was a symbol of the new covenant, which did not have any of the symbols of
Luke 5:38; Matt 9:17; Mark 2:22 (note only wine that could be stored in new wine skins is new wine/grape juice "Jesus was not thinking at all of fermented, intoxicating wine, but of 'must,' a non-intoxicating beverage, which could be kept safely in new leather bottles, but not in old skins which had previously contained ordinary wine, because particles of albuminoid matter adhering to the skin would set up fermentation and develop gas with an enormous pressure.Alexander Balman Bruce, The Synoptic Gospels in The Expositor's Greek Testament (Grand Rapids, 1956), p. 500.)
-Good wine in the Bible is described as new wine.